Nonintrusive component forensics of visual sensors using output images

TitleNonintrusive component forensics of visual sensors using output images
Publication TypeJournal Articles
Year of Publication2007
AuthorsSwaminathan A, M. Wu, Liu KJR
JournalInformation Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on
Pagination91 - 106
Date Published2007/03//
ISBN Number1556-6013
KeywordsACQUISITION, array;color, authenticating, component, filter, forensics;patent, infringements;visual, Interpolation, manipulations;intellectual, modules;content, property, property;, protection;nonintrusive, rights, sensors;image, sensors;industrial, sources;color

Rapid technology development and the widespread use of visual sensors have led to a number of new problems related to protecting intellectual property rights, handling patent infringements, authenticating acquisition sources, and identifying content manipulations. This paper introduces nonintrusive component forensics as a new methodology for the forensic analysis of visual sensing information, aiming to identify the algorithms and parameters employed inside various processing modules of a digital device by only using the device output data without breaking the device apart. We propose techniques to estimate the algorithms and parameters employed by important camera components, such as color filter array and color interpolation modules. The estimated interpolation coefficients provide useful features to construct an efficient camera identifier to determine the brand and model from which an image was captured. The results obtained from such component analysis are also useful to examine the similarities between the technologies employed by different camera models to identify potential infringement/licensing and to facilitate studies on technology evolution