Intrinsic Sensor Noise Features for Forensic Analysis on Scanners and Scanned Images

TitleIntrinsic Sensor Noise Features for Forensic Analysis on Scanners and Scanned Images
Publication TypeJournal Articles
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsGou H, Swaminathan A, M. Wu
JournalInformation Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on
Pagination476 - 491
Date Published2009/09//
ISBN Number1556-6013
Keywordsanalysis;image, camera-taken, cameras;digital, denoising;intrinsic, denoising;wavelet, features;natural, forensics;scanned, graphics;digital, identifier;wavelet, images;digital, images;scanner, NOISE, photographs;computer-generated, prediction;nonintrusive, reproduction;forensic, scanner, scenes;neighborhood, sensor, transforms;

A large portion of digital images available today are acquired using digital cameras or scanners. While cameras provide digital reproduction of natural scenes, scanners are often used to capture hard-copy art in a more controlled environment. In this paper, new techniques for nonintrusive scanner forensics that utilize intrinsic sensor noise features are proposed to verify the source and integrity of digital scanned images. Scanning noise is analyzed from several aspects using only scanned image samples, including through image denoising, wavelet analysis, and neighborhood prediction, and then obtain statistical features from each characterization. Based on the proposed statistical features of scanning noise, a robust scanner identifier is constructed to determine the model/brand of the scanner used to capture a scanned image. Utilizing these noise features, we extend the scope of acquisition forensics to differentiating scanned images from camera-taken photographs and computer-generated graphics. The proposed noise features also enable tampering forensics to detect postprocessing operations on scanned images. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of employing the proposed noise features for performing various forensic analysis on scanners and scanned images.