Environmental Surveillance for Toxigenic <i>Vibrio cholerae</i> in Surface Waters of Haiti

TitleEnvironmental Surveillance for Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Surface Waters of Haiti
Publication TypeJournal Articles
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsHill VR, Humphrys MS, Kahler AM, Boncy J, Tarr CL, Huq A, Chen A, Katz LS, Mull BJ, Derado G, Haley BJ, Freeman N, Colwell RR, Turnsek M
JournalThe American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Pagination118 - 125
Date PublishedJul-01-2015

Epidemic cholera was reported in Haiti in 2010, with no information available on the occurrence or geographic distribution of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Haitian waters. In a series of field visits conducted in Haiti between 2011 and 2013, water and plankton samples were collected at 19 sites. Vibrio cholerae was detected using culture, polymerase chain reaction, and direct viable count methods (DFA-DVC). Cholera toxin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction in broth enrichments of samples collected in all visits except March 2012. Toxigenic V. cholerae was isolated from river water in 2011 and 2013. Whole genome sequencing revealed that these isolates were a match to the outbreak strain. The DFA-DVC tests were positive for V. cholerae O1 in plankton samples collected from multiple sites. Results of this survey show that toxigenic V. cholerae could be recovered from surface waters in Haiti more than 2 years after the onset of the epidemic.