Aquatic Realm and Cholera

TitleAquatic Realm and Cholera
Publication TypeJournal Articles
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsHuq A, Grim CJ, Colwell RR
JournalEpidemiological and Molecular Aspects on Cholera
Pagination311 - 339
Date Published2011///

Cholera is an ancient disease that can be severe and life threatening. It occurs predominantly in areas of the world where populations lack safe drinking water. Epidemics of cholera are linked with malnutrition, poor sanitation, and conditions resulting from natural disasters such as severe flooding. According to a report published by WHO in 2000 [1], cholera remains a major public health problem and is becoming increasingly important since the number of countries in which cholera is endemic continues to increase. Unfortunately, outbreaks of the disease continue into the twenty-first century with ominous portent in the wake of global climate change [1]. Yet cholera is a preventable disease if people have access to safe drinking water and are properly educated how to protect themselves from the risk of infection with vibrios. Cholera also is an easily treatable disease. Oral rehydration therapy, a solution containing glucose and appropriate salts, has proven to be effective for treatment of most cholera victims [2]. Nevertheless, each year, tens of thousands of people are victims of the disease, bringing this “curse of humankind” to modern civilization. Present understanding of cholera is based on studies conducted over the past three decades and significant new information has been gained concerning environmental factors associated with this disease, especially how to detect the bacterium and where it lives in the natural environment, outside the human gut, and what triggers the annual outbreaks that occur with remarkable regularity. Environmental research on Vibrio cholerae and cholera has provided insights for prediction and prevention of the disease it causes, while the race for effective vaccines against cholera continues.