Anti-collusion codes: multi-user and multimedia perspectives

TitleAnti-collusion codes: multi-user and multimedia perspectives
Publication TypeConference Papers
Year of Publication2002
AuthorsTrappe W, M. Wu, Liu KJR
Conference NameImage Processing. 2002. Proceedings. 2002 International Conference on
Date Published2002///
Keywordsand, anti-collusion, authentication;, binary, code, codes;, coding;, combinatorial, computing;, content;, data, designs;, digital, embedding;, encapsulation;, fingerprinting;, image, images;, logical, mathematics;, message, Modulation, modulation;, multimedia, operation;, performance;, watermarking;

Digital fingerprinting is an effective method to identify users who might try to redistribute multimedia content, such as images and video. These fingerprints are typically embedded into the content using watermarking techniques that are designed to be robust to a variety of attacks. A cheap and effective attack against such digital fingerprints is collusion, where several differently marked copies of the same content are averaged or combined to disrupt the underlying fingerprint. We present a construction of collusion-resistant fingerprints based upon anti-collusion codes (ACC) and binary code modulation. ACC have the property that the composition of any subset of K or fewer codevectors is unique. Using this property, we build fingerprints that allow for the identification of groups of K or less colluders. We present a construction of binary-valued ACC under the logical AND operation using the theory of combinatorial designs. Our code construction requires only Oscr;( radic;n) orthogonal signals to accommodate n users. We demonstrate the performance of our ACC for fingerprinting multimedia by identifying colluders through experiments using real images.