Implementing a zooming User Interface: experience building Pad++

TitleImplementing a zooming User Interface: experience building Pad++
Publication TypeJournal Articles
Year of Publication1998
AuthorsBederson BB, Meyer J
JournalSoftware: Practice and Experience
Pagination1101 - 1135
Date Published1998/08/01/
ISBN Number1097-024X
Keywords3D graphics, animation, Pad++, real‐time computer graphics, User Interface Management Systems (UIMS), windowing systems, zooming User Interfaces (ZUIs)

We are investigating a novel user interface paradigm based on zooming, in which users are presented with a zooming view of a huge planar information surface. We have developed a system called Pad++ to explore this approach. The implementation of Pad++ is related to real-time 3D graphics systems and to 2D windowing systems. However, the zooming nature of Pad++ requires new approaches to rendering, screen management, and spatial indexing. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of the Pad++ engine, focusing in particular on rendering and data structure issues. Our goal is to present useful techniques that can be adopted in other real-time graphical systems, and also to discuss how 2D zooming systems differ from other graphical systems. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.