%0 Journal Article
%J Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on
%D 2005
%T Data hiding in curves with application to fingerprinting maps
%A Gou,Hongmei
%A M. Wu
%K (mathematics);
%K algorithm;
%K alignment-minimization
%K B-spline
%K CONTROL
%K curve
%K data
%K detection;
%K edge
%K embedding;
%K encapsulation;
%K fingerprint
%K geospatial
%K hiding
%K identification;
%K image
%K iterative
%K method;
%K methods;
%K minimisation;
%K point;
%K protection;
%K registration;
%K sequence;
%K spectrum
%K splines
%K spread
%K watermarking;
%X This paper presents a new data hiding method for curves. The proposed algorithm parameterizes a curve using the B-spline model and adds a spread spectrum sequence to the coordinates of the B-spline control points. In order to achieve robust fingerprint detection, an iterative alignment-minimization algorithm is proposed to perform curve registration and to deal with the nonuniqueness of B-spline control points. Through experiments, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed data-hiding algorithm against various attacks, such as collusion, cropping, geometric transformations, vector/raster-raster/vector conversions, printing-and-scanning, and some of their combinations. We also show the feasibility of our method for fingerprinting topographic maps as well as writings and drawings.
%B Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on
%V 53
%P 3988 - 4005
%8 2005/10//
%@ 1053-587X
%G eng
%N 10
%R 10.1109/TSP.2005.855411