@article {14915,
title = {Recognizing 3-D objects using 2-D images},
year = {1993},
month = {1993///},
institution = {MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB},
abstract = {To visually recognize objects, we adopt the strategy of forming groups of image features with a bottom-up process, and then using these groups to index into a data base to find all of the matching groups of model features. This approach reduces the computation needed for recognition, since we only consider groups of model features that can account for these relatively large chunks of the image. To perform indexing, we represent a group of 3-D model features in terms of the 2-D images it can produce. Specifically, we show that the simplest and most space-efficient way of doing this for models consisting of general groups of 3-D point features is to represent the set of images each model group produces with two lines (1D subspaces), one in each of two orthogonal, high-dimensional spaces. These spaces represent all possible image groups so that a single image group corresponds to one point in each space. We determine the effects of bounded sensing error on a set of image points, so that we may build a robust and efficient indexing system. We also present an optimal indexing method for more complicated features, and we present bounds on the space required for indexing in a variety of situations. We use the representations of a model{\textquoteright}s images that we develop to analyze other approaches to matching. We show that there are no invariants of general 3-D models, and demonstrate limitations in the use of non-accidental properties, and in other approaches to reconstructing a 3-D scene from a single 2-D image. Grouping, Non- accidental properties, Indexing, Invariants, Recognition, Sensing error.},
author = {Jacobs, David W.}
}