TY - JOUR
T1 - Anti-collusion forensics of multimedia fingerprinting using orthogonal modulation
JF - Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on
Y1 - 2005
A1 - Wang,Z.J.
A1 - M. Wu
A1 - Zhao,H.V.
A1 - Trappe,W.
A1 - Liu,K. J.R
KW - Automated;Product Labeling;Signal Processing
KW - Computer-Assisted;
KW - Computer-Assisted;Multimedia;Patents as Topic;Pattern Recognition
KW - Gaussian distribution;anticollusion forensic;colluder identification;collusion resistance;digital fingerprinting;false probability;likelihood-based approach;multimedia fingerprinting;orthogonal modulation;spread spectrum embedding;Gaussian distribution;fi
AB - Digital fingerprinting is a method for protecting digital data in which fingerprints that are embedded in multimedia are capable of identifying unauthorized use of digital content. A powerful attack that can be employed to reduce this tracing capability is collusion, where several users combine their copies of the same content to attenuate/remove the original fingerprints. In this paper, we study the collusion resistance of a fingerprinting system employing Gaussian distributed fingerprints and orthogonal modulation. We introduce the maximum detector and the thresholding detector for colluder identification. We then analyze the collusion resistance of a system to the averaging collusion attack for the performance criteria represented by the probability of a false negative and the probability of a false positive. Lower and upper bounds for the maximum number of colluders K_{max} are derived. We then show that the detectors are robust to different collusion attacks. We further study different sets of performance criteria, and our results indicate that attacks based on a few dozen independent copies can confound such a fingerprinting system. We also propose a likelihood-based approach to estimate the number of colluders. Finally, we demonstrate the performance for detecting colluders through experiments using real images.
VL - 14
SN - 1057-7149
CP - 6
M3 - 10.1109/TIP.2005.847284
ER -